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Scientific Bibliography : Monarch Physiology


Bartholomew, G. A. 1981. A matter of size: An examination of endothermy in insects and terrestrial vertebrates. In Insect themoregulation, ed. B. Heinrich, 45-78, New York: Wiley.

Bartholomew, G. A., Epting, R. J. 1975. Allometry of postflight cooling rates in moths: A comparison with vertebrate homeotherms. Journal of Experimental Biology 63:603-613

Calvert, W. H., Brower, L. P., Lawton, R. O. 1992. Mass flight response of overwintering monarch butterflies (Nymphalidae) to cloud-induced changes in solar radiation intensity in Mexico. Lepidopterists' Society Journal 46:97-105 [Keywords: overwintering, cloud response, microclimate, thermoregulation, temperature, Mexico]

Calvert, W. H., Zuchowski, W., Brower, L. P. 1983. The effect of rain, snow and freezing temperatures on overwintering monarch butterflies in Mexico. Biotropica (Lawrence) 15:42-47

Capinera, J. L., Wiener, L. F., Anamosa, P. R. 1980. Behavioral themoregulation by late instar range caterpillar larvae Hemileuca oliviae Cockerell (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 53:631-638

Casey, T. M. 1976. Activity patterns, body temperature, and thermal ecology in two desert caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Ecology 52:485-497

Casey, T. M. 1981. Behavioral mechanisms of thermoregulation. In Insect thermoregulation, ed. B. Heinrich, 79-114, New York: Wiley.

Casey, T. M., Joos, B. A. 1983. Morphometrics, conductance, thoracic temperature, and flight energetics of noctuid and geometrid moths. Physiological Zoology 56:160-173

Church, H. K. 1960. Heat loss and the body temperature of flying insects. II. Heat conduction within the body and its loss by radiation and convection. Journal of Experimental Biology 37:187-212

Clench, H. K. 1966. Behavioral thermoregulation in butterflies. Ecology 47:1021-1034

DeVries, A. L. 1983. Biological antifreeze agents. Annual Review of Physiology 25:805-810

Digby, P. S. B. 1955. Factors influencing the temperature excess of insects in sunshine. Journal of Experimental Biology 32:279-298

Douglas, M. M. 1978. The behavioral and biophysical strategies of thermoregulation in temperate butterflies. Ph.D. Thesis, Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas.

Douglas, M. M., Grula, J. 1978. Thermoregulatory adaptations allowing ecological range expansion by the pierid butterfly, Nathalis iole. Evolution 32:776-783

Duman, J. G., Horwath, K. 1983. The role of hemolymph proteins in the cold tolerance of insects. Annual Review of Physiology 45

Duman, J. G., Horwath, K. L., Tomchaney, A., Patterson, J. L. 1982. Antifreeze agents of terrestrial arthropods. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 73A:545-555

Heath, J. E., Adams, P. A. 1965. Temperature regulation in the sphinx moth during flight. Nature (London) 205:309-310

Heinrich, B. 1971. Temperature regulation of the sphinx moth, Manduca sexta I. Flight energetics and body temperature regulation during free and tethered flight. Journal of Experimental Biology 54:141-152

Heinrich, B. 1972. Thoracic temperatures of butterflies in the field near the equator. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 43:459-467

Heinrich, B. 1974. Thermoregulation in endothermic insects. Science (Washington) 185:747-756

Heinrich, B. 1981. Insect thermoregulation. New York: Wiley

Heinrich, B., Casey, T. M. 1973. Metabolic rate and endothermy in sphinx moths. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 82:195-206

James, D. G. 1986. Thermoregulation in Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): Two cool climate adaptations. General and Applied Entomology (Sydney) 18:43-47 [Keywords: behavior, physiology, thermoregulation, basking, melanic larvae, overwintering]

Kammer, A. E. 1970. Thoracic temperature, shivering and flight in the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.). Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Physiologie (Berlin) 68:334-344

Kammer, A. E. 1971. Influence of acclimation temperature on the shivering behaviour of the butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.). Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Physiologie (Berlin) 72:364-369

Kammer, A. E. 1981. Physiological mechanisms of thermoregulation. In Insect thermoregulation, ed. B. Heinrich, 115-158. New York: Wiley.

Kammer, A. E., Bracci, J. 1973. Role of the wings in the absorption of radiant energy by a butterfly. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 45A:1057-1064

Kingsolver, J. C., Koehl, M. A. R. 1985. Aerodynamics, thermoregulation, and evolution of insect wings: Differential scaling and evolutionary change. Evolution 39:448-504 [Keywords: flight]

Kingsolver, J. G. 1985. Butterfly thermoregulation: Organismic mechanisms and population consequences. J. Lepid. Soc. 24:1-20

Kingsolver, J. G., Watt, W. B. 1983. Thermoregulatory strategies in Colias butterflies: Thermal stress and the limits to adaptation in temproally varying environments. American Naturalist 121:32-55

Knight, J. D., Bale, J. S., Franks, F., Mathias, S. F., Baust, J. G. 1986. Insect cold hardiness: Supercooling points and pre-freeze mortality. Cryo Letters (Cambridge) 7:194-203

Larsen, K. J., Lee, R. E., Jr. 1994. Cold tolerance including rapid cold-hardening and inoculative freezing of fall migrant monarch butterflies in Ohio. Journal of Insect Physiology 40:859-864 [Keywords: ecology, physiology, temperature, freezing, acclimation]

Lessman, C. A. 1979. Enhancement of juvenile hormone degradation by flight and heat in adult Monarchs. American Zoologist 19:915

Masters, A. R. 1985. The influence of temperature on the overwintering biology of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). M.S. thesis, Gainesville: Univ. of FL.

Masters, A. R., Malcolm, S. B., Brower, L. P. 1988. Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) thermoregulatory behavior and adaptations for overwintering in Mexico. Ecology 69:458-467 [Keywords: behavior, overwintering, physiology, thermoregulation, shivering, basking]

May, M. L. 1979. Insect thermoregulation. Annual Review of Entomology 24:313-349

May, M. L. 1984. Thermoregulation. In Comprehensive insect physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. Vol. 4, eds. G. A. Kerbut and L. I. Gilbert, 507-552. New York: Pergamon.

Porter, K. 1982. Basking behaviour in larvae of the butterfly Euphydryas aurinia. Oikos (Copenhagen) 38:308-312

Rawlins, J. E. 1980. Thermoregulation by the black swallowtail butterfly Papilio polyxenes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Ecology 61:345-357

Salt, R. W. 1961. Principles of insect cold hardiness. Annual Review of Entomology 6:55-74

Seymour, R. S. 1974. Convective and evaporative cooling in sawfly larvae. Journal of Insect Physiology 20:2447-2457

Shelly, T. E., Ludwig, D. 1985. Thermoregulatory behavior of the butterfly Calisto nubila (Satyridae) in a Puerto Rican forest. Oikos (Copenhagen) 44:229-233

Smith, D. A. S. 1975. The significance of aggregations in Danaid butterflies. Bulletin, East African Natural History Society, Nairobi 1975:72-73

Somme, L. 1964. Effects of glycerol on cold hardiness in insects. Canadian Journal of Zoology 42:87-101

Somme, L. 1982. Supercooling and winter survival in terrestrial arthropods. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 73A:519-543

Troyer, H. L., Burks, C. S., Lee, R. E. 1996. Phenology of cold-hardiness in reproductive and migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in southwest Ohio. Journal of Insect Physiology 42:633-642

Wasserthal, L. T. 1975. The role of butterfly wings in the regulation of body temperature. Journal of Insect Physiology 21:1921-1930

Watt, W. B. 1968. Adaptive significance of pigment polymorphism in Colias butterflies. I. Variation in melanin pigment in relation to thermoregulation. Evol. 22:437-458

Zachariassen, K. E., Hammel, H. T. 1976. Nucleating agents in the hemolymph of insects tolerant to freezing. Nat. 262:285-287

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