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Scientific Bibliography : Monarch Physiology

General Physiology

Agrawal, D. P., Saxena, R. C., Bais, A. K. 1978. Histochemistry of the male germ cells of Danais chrysippus Lin. (Lepidoptera). Annals of Zoology (Agra) 14:1-14

Appel, H. M., Martin, M. M. 1990. Gut redox conditions in herbivorous lepidopteran larvae. Journal of chemical ecology 16:3277-3289 [Keywords: physiology, feeding, plant-insect interactions, digestion]

Arnold, J. W. 1964. Blood circulation in insect wings. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 38:1-48

Barker, J. F., Herman, W. S. 1973. On the neuroendocrine control of ovarian development in the Monarch butterfly. Journal of Experimental Zoology 183:1-10 [Keywords: physiology, neuroendocrine system, ovarian development]

Barker, J. F., Herman, W. S. 1976. Effect of photoperiod and temperature on reproduction of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. Journal of Insect Physiology 22:1565-1568 [Keywords: behavior, physiology, reproduction, juvenile hormone, ovarian development]

Boppre, M., Vane-Wright, R. I. 1989. Androconial systems in Danainae (Lepidoptera): Functional morphology of Amauris, Danaus, Tirumala and Euploea. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 97:101-133

Brewer, J. 1966. Some experimental color aberrations in Danaus plexippus. J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 20:45-47

Brower, L. P., Jones, M. A. 1965. Precourtship interaction of wing and abdominal glands in male Danaus butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 40:147-151, 2 pls.

Brower, L. P., Nelson, C. J., Seiber, J. N., Fink, L. S., Bond, C. 1988. Exaptation as an alternative to coevolution in the cardenolide-based chemical defense of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) against avian predators. In Chemical mediation of coevolution , ed. K. C. Spencer. pp. 447-475. New York: Academic Press [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycoside, birds, predation, physiology]

Carter, P. A., Hughes, J. M., Zalucki, M. P. 1989. Genetic variation in a continuously breeding population of Danaus plexippus L.: An examination of heterozygosity at four loci in relation to activity times. Heredity (Oxford) 63:191-194 [Keywords: genetics, activity levels]

Casey, T. M. 1976. Activity patterns, body temperature, and thermal ecology in two desert caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Ecology 52:485-497

Cenedella, R. J. 1971. The lipids of the female Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, during fall migration. Insect Biochemistry (Oxford) 1:244-247

Chaplin, S. B., Wells, P. H. 1982. Energy reserves and metabolic expenditures of monarch butterflies overwintering in southern California. Ecological Entomology 7:249-256 [Keywords: physiology, overwintering, oxygen consumption, fat reserves]

Clarke, K. U. 1977. The transient and steady state responses in oxygen consumption by tropical butterflies to temperature step transfer tests. J. Zool., Lond. 183:251-268

Cohen, J. A., Brower, L. P. 1982. Oviposition and larval success of wild monarch butterflies (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) in relation to host plant size and cardenolide concentration. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 55:343-348 [Keywords: behavior, reproduction, physiology, survivorship, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides]

Dallmann, S. H., Herman, W. S. 1978. Hormonal regulation of haemolymph lipid concentration in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. General and Comparative Endocrinology 36:142-150

Dallmann, S. H., Herman, W. S., Carlsen, J., Josefsson, L. 1981. Adipokinetic activity of shrimp and locust peptide hormones in butterflies. General and Comparative Endocrinology 43:256-258

Davis, R. H., Nahrstedt, A. 1985. Cyanogenesis in insects. In Comprehensive insect physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology 11 , ed. G. A. Kerkut, L. I. Gilbert. pp. 635-654. Oxford: Pergamon Press

Dennis, R. L. H. 1985. Egg-keel number in the small tortoiseshell butterfly. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 97:162-164

Dethier, V. G. 1975. The Monarch revisited. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 48:129-140

Dores, R. M., Dallmann, S. H., Herman, W. S. 1979. The regulation of post-eclosion and post-feeding diuresis in the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. Journal of Insect Physiology 25:895-901

Dores, R. M., Herman, W. H. 1981. Effect of age, ambient temperature, and exposure to hormone on the posteclosion diuretic response of the Monarch butterfly. Experientia (Basel) 37:529-530 [Keywords: physiology, diuresis]

Edgar, J. A., Boppre, M., Schneider, D. 1979. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid storage in African and Australian danaid butterflies. Experientia (Basel) 35:1447-1448

Edgar, J. A., Culvenor, C. C. J. 1974. Pyrrolizidine ester alkaloid in Danaid butterflies. Nature (London) 248:614-616

Egelhaaf, A., Colln, K., Schmitz, B., Buck, M., Wink, M., Schneider, D. 1990. Organ specific storage of dietary pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the arctiid moth Creatonotos transiens. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung 45c:172-177 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defence, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, secondary compounds, secondary substances, sex differences]

Ferm, B. 1977. A comparative study of cardiac glycoside sequestering by Danaus plexippus and Danaus chrysippus. Senior honors thesis. Amherst, MA: Amherst Coll. :64

Frick, C., Wink, M. 1995. Uptake and sequestration of quabain and other cardiac glycosides in Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaide): Evidence for a carrier-mediated process. Journal of chemical ecology :557-575 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, secondary compounds, ouabain, uptake, carrier]

Gibo, D. L., McCurdy, J. A. 1993. Lipid accumulation by migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.). Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:76-82 [Keywords: behavior, physiology, migration, lipids]

Gossard, T., Jones, R. 1977. The effects of age and weather on egg-laying in Pieris rapae L. Journal of Animal Ecology 14:65-71

Greene, E. 1989. A diet-induced developmental polymorphism in a caterpillar. Science (Washington) 243:643-646 [Keywords: physiology, development, secondary compounds]

Heinrich, B. 1972. Thoracic temperatures of butterflies in the field near the equator. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 43:459-467

Heinrich, B., Casey, T. M. 1973. Metabolic rate and endothermy in sphinx moths. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 82:195-206

Herman, W. S. 1988. Body weight and wing length changes in Minnesota populations of the monarch butterfly. J. Lep. Soc. 42:32-36

Herman, W. S., Brower, L. P., Calvert, W. H. 1989. Reproductive tract development in monarch butterflies overwintering in California and Mexico. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 43:50-58 [Keywords: physiology, reproduction, overwintering, diapause, California, Mexico]

Holzinger, F., Frick, C., Wink, M. 1992. Molecular basis for the insensitivity of the Monarch (Danaus plexippus) to cardiac glycosides (FEBS 11920). FEBS (Federation of European Biochemical Societies) Letters 314:477-480 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, sequestration]

Holzinger, F., Wink, M. 1996. Mediation of cardiac glycoside insensitivity in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) - Role of an amino-acid substitution in the ouabain binding-site of Na+, K+ ATPase. Journal of Chemical Ecology 22:1921-1937

Hopf, A. L. 1954. Sex differences observed in larvae of Danaus berenice. Lepid. News, Cambridge, Mass. 8:123-124 [Keywords: development]

Isman, M. B. 1977. Dietary influence of cardenolides on larval growth and development of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Journal of Insect Physiology 23:1183-1187

James, D. G. 1984. Overwintering biology of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus in New South Wales. Ph.D. thesis at Macquarie University.

James, D. G. 1984. Phenology of weight, moisture, and energy reserves of Australian monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus. Ecological Entomology 9:421-428 [Keywords: physiology, overwintering, reproduction, non-reproductive, weights, moisture, lipid, protein]

James, D. G. 1986. Effect of temperature upon energy reserves of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Australian Journal of Zoology (Melbourne) 34:373-379 [Keywords: physiology, overwintering, Australia]

Jones, D. S., MacFadden, B. J. 1982. Induced magnetization in the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Insecta, Lepidoptera). Journal of Experimental Biology 96:1-9 [Keywords: physiology, magnetization]

Kingsolver, J. G., Daniel, T. L. 1979. On the mechanics and energetics of nectar feeding in butterflies. Journal of Theoretical Biology 76:167-179

Kitching, I. J. 1984. Enzymic variation in the Danainae. Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London No. 11:191-192

Lessman, C. A., Rollins, L., Herman, W. S. 1982. Effects of juvenile hormones I, II, and III on reproductive tract growth in male and female monarch butterflies. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 71A:141-144

MacFadden, B. J., Jones, D. S. 1985. Magnetic butterflies: a case study of the Monarch (Lepidoptera, Danaidae). In Magnetite and biomineralization and magnetoreception in organisms , ed. J. L. Kirschvink, D. S. Jones, B. J. MacFadden. pp. 407-415. New York: Plenum Press [Keywords: behavior, migration, magnetic orientation, magnetite, physiology, biomagnetism]

Malcolm, S. B. 1987. The fourth chemical ecology meeting. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2:292-293

Malcolm, S. B., Cockrell, B. J., Brower, L. P. 1987. Monarch butterfly voltinism: Effects of temperature constraints at different latitudes. Oikos (Copenhagen) 49:77-82 [Keywords: physiology, reproduction, development]

Marshall, H. D. 1985. Protein and lipid composition of Colias philodice and C. eurytheme spermatophores and their changes over time (Pieridae). Journal of Research On the Lepidoptera 24:21-30

Marshall, L. D. 1982. Male nutrient investment in the Lepidoptera: What nutrients should males invest? American Naturalist 120:273-279

Martin, R. A., Lynch, S. P. 1988. Cardenolide content and thin-layer chromatography profiles of monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus L., and their larval host-plant milkweed, Asclepias asperula subsp. capricornu (Woods.) Woods., in north central Texas. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14:295-318 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, cardenolide fingerprint]

Martin, R. A., Lynch, S. P., Brower, L. P., Malcolm, S. B., Van Hook, T. 1992. Cardenolide content, emetic potency, and thin-layer chromatography profiles of monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, and their larval host-plant milk-weed, Asclepias humistrata, in Florida. Chemoecology (Stuttgart) 3:1-13 [Keywords: physiology, milkweed, Asclepias, chemical defense, cardiac glycoside, sequestration, cardenolide fingerprint]

Marty, M. 1983. Metabolism and disposition of milkweed (Asclepiadaceae) cardenolides in monarch butterfly larvae, Danaus plexippus, and in a predator, Peromyscus maniculatus. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California

Marty, M. A., Krieger, R. J. 1984. Metabolism of uscharidin, a milkweed cardenolide, by tissue homogenates of monarch butterfly larvae, Danaus plexippus L. Journal of Chemical Ecology 10:945-956 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, metabolism]

Masters, A. R. 1985. The influence of temperature on the overwintering biology of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). M.S. thesis, Gainesville: Univ. of FL.

Mayer, A. G. 1896. The development of the wing scales and their pigment in butterflies and moths. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 29:209-236, 7 pls.

Moore, L. V., Scudder, G. G. E. 1985. Selective sequestration of milkweed (Asclepias spp.) cardenolides in Oncopeltus fasciatus. Journal of Insect Physiology 1:27-33

Nordlander, R. H., Edwards, J. S. 1968. Morphological cell death in the post-embryonic development of the insect optic lobes. Nature (London) 218:780-781

Nordlander, R. H., Edwards, J. S. 1969. Postembryonic brain development in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus L. I. Cellular events during brain morphogenesis. Wilhelm Roux Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (Berlin) 162:197-217

Nordlander, R. H., Edwards, J. S. 1969. Postembryonic brain development in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus L. II. The optic lobes. Wilhelm Roux Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (Berlin) 163:197-220

Nordlander, R. H., Edwards, J. S. 1970. Postembryonic brain development in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus L. III. Morphogenesis of centres other than the optic lobes. Wilhelm Roux Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (Berlin) 164:247-260

Oberhauser, K. S. 1989. Effects of spermatophores on male and female monarch butterfly reproductive success. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (Berlin) 25:237-246 [Keywords: behavior, reproduction, mating, spermatophore, fecundity]

Oberhauser, K. S. 1989. Material investment in mating by male monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). . pp. 121. St. Paul: Univ. of Minn.

Oberhauser, K. S. 1992. Rate of ejaculate breakdown and intermating intervals in monarch butterflies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (Berlin) 31:367-373 [Keywords: behavior, reproduction, mating, physiology, spermatophore]

Oberhauser, K. S., Cansler, D., Feitl, A. 1996. Genetics of a "zebra" pigment mutation in the larvae of Danaus plexippus L. (Nymphalidae: Danainae). Lepidopterists' Society Journal 50:237-

Oberhauser, K. S., Hampton, R. 1995. The relationship between mating and oogenesis in monarch butterflies (Lepidoptera: Danainae). Journal of Insect Behavior 8:701-713 [Keywords: behavior, physiology, reproduction, mating]

Pandian, T. J., Pitchairaj, R., Mathavan, S., Palonichany, R. 1978. Effects of temperature and leaf ration on the water budget of the final instar of Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera Danidae [sic]). Monitore Zoologico Italiano (Florence) 12:17-28

Petersen, B. 1964. Humidity, darkness and gold spots as possible factors in pupal duration of monarch butterflies. J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 18:230-232

Pittendrigh, C. S. 1993. Temporal organization: Reflections of a Darwinian clock-watcher. Annual Review of Physiology 55:17-54 [Keywords: circadian rhythms, biological clocks, anecdotal review]

Pliske, T. E., Salpeter, M. M. 1971. The structure and development of the hairpencil glands in males of the Queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus berenice. Journal of Morphology 134:215-242

Raubenheimer, D. 1987. Cyanogenesis and the feeding preference of Acraea horta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Acraeinae). University of Cape Town.

Rawlings, J. E., Lederhouse, R. C. 1981. Developmental influences of thermal behavior on Monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus): an adaptation for migration (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 54:378-408 [Keywords: behavior, thermoregulation, development]

Rawson, G. W. 1968. Study of fluorescent pigments in Lepidoptera by means of paper partition chromatography. J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 22:27-40

Roeske, C. M., Seiber, J. N., Brower, L. P., Moffitt, C. M. 1976. Milkweed cardenolides and their comparative processing by monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.). Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 10:93-167

Rutowski, R. L., Gilchrist, G. W., Terkanian, B. 1987. Female butterflies mated with recently mated males show reduced reproductive output. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (Berlin) 20:319-322 [Keywords: reproduction, physiology, male contribution]

Sasaki, M., Riddiford, L. M. 1984. Regulation of reproductive behaviour and egg maturation in the tobacco hawk moth, Manduca sexta. Physiological Entomology (Oxford) 9:315-327

Saxena, P. 1981. Changes during ontogeny in the digestive physiology of Danais chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Comparative Physiology and Ecology 6:284-288

Scheermeyer, E., Kitching, R. L., Jones, R. E. 1990. Host plants, temperature and seasonal effects on immature development and adult size of Euploea core corinna (Lepidoptera: Danainae). Australian Journal of Zoology (Melbourne) 37:299-308 [Keywords: ecology, host plants, temperature, physiology, development]

Schneider, D., Boppre, M., Schneider, H., Thompson, W. R., Boriack, C. J., Petty, R. L. & Meinwald, J. 1975. A pheromone precursor and its uptake in male Danaus butterflies. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 97:245-256

Schneider, D. 1977. Plant alkaloids as pheromone precursors in Danaid butterflies. In Comportement des insects et millieu trophique: 353-356. Colloque International du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris No. 265.

Schneider, D. 1986. The strange fate of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. In Perspectives in chemoreception and behavior , ed. R. F. Chapman, E. A. Bernays, J. G. Stoffolano. pp. 123-142. New York: Springer-Verlag [Keywords: chemical defense, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, PAs]

Schroeder, L. A. 1976. Energy, matter and nitrogen utilization by the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus. Oikos (Copenhagen) 27:259-264 [Keywords: physiology, feeding, development, growth]

Schroeder, L. A. 1977. Energy, matter and nitrogen utilization by larvae of the milkweed tiger-moth, Euchaetias egle. Oikos, Kobenhavn 28:27-31

Schulz, S., Francke, W., Boppre, M. 1988. Carboxylic acids from hairpencils of Amauris butterflies (Lep.: Danainae). Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 369:633-638

Schulz, S., Francke, W., Edgar, J., Schneider, D. 1988. Volatile compounds from androconial organs of danaine and ithomiine butterflies. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung 43c:99-104

Scriber, J. M., Lederhouse, R. C. 1983. Temperature as a factor in the development and feeding ecology of tiger swallowtail caterpillars, Papilio glaucus (Lepidoptera). Oikos (Copenhagen) 40:95-102 [Keywords: behavior, physiology, feeding rate, temperature, development]

Scudder, G. G. E., Meredith, J. 1982. The permeability of the midgut of three insects to cardiac glycosides. Journal of Insect Physiology 28:689-694

Scudder, G. G. E., Moore, L. V., Isman, M. B. 1986. Sequestration of cardenolides in Oncopeltus fasciatus: Morphological and physiological adaptations. Journal of Chemical Ecology 12:1171-1187 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycoside, secondary compounds, milkweeds, Asclepias, physiology]

Seiber, J. N., Tuskes, P. M., Brower, L. P., Nelson, C. J. 1980. Pharmacodynamics of some individual milkweed cardenolides fed to the larvae of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology 6:321-339 [Keywords: physiology, cardenolide storage, metabolism]

Seigler, D. S. 1981. Cyanogenic glycosides and lipids: Structural types and distribution. In Cyanide in biology, eds. B. Vennesland, E. E. Conn, C. J. Knowles, J. Westley, and F. Wissing, 133-143. London: Academic Press.

Shapiro, A. M. 1982. Survival of refrigerated Tatochila butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) as an indicator of male nutrient investment in reproduction. Oeacologia, Berlin 53:139-140

Sherman, P. W., Watt, W. B. 1973. The thermal ecology of some Colias butterfly larvae. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 83:25-40

Shreeve, T. G. 1984. Habitat selection, mate location, and microclimatic constraints on the activity of the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria. Oikos (Copenhagen) 43:371-377

Shukla, R. N. 1976. Haemolymph proteins in relation to growth, molting and reproduction in Danais chrysippus Linn. Biochimica e Biologia Sperimentale (Milan) 12:333-339

Smith, D. A. S. 1978. The effect of cardiac glycoside storage on growth rate and adult size in the butterfly D. chrysippus (L.). Experientia (Basel) 34:845-846

Stelljes, M. E., Seiber, J. N. 1990. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in an overwintering population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in California. Journal of Chemical Ecology 16:1459-1470 [Keywords: chemical defense, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, PAs, overwintering]

Suzuki, Y. 1978. Adult longevity and reproductive potential of the small cabbage white, Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Applied Entomology and Zoology (Tokyo) 13:312-313

Svard, L., Wiklund, C. 1988. Fecundity, egg weight and longevity in relation to multiple matings in females of the monarch butterfly. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (Berlin) 23:39-43 [Keywords: behavior, physiology, reproduction, survivorship]

Svard, L., Wiklund, C. 1988. Prolonged mating in the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus and nightfall as a cue for sperm transfer. Oikos (Copenhagen) 52:351-354 [Keywords: behavior, reproduction, mating, sperm transfer]

Svard, L., Wiklund, C. 1989. Mass and production weight of ejaculates in relation to monandry/polyandry in butterflies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (Berlin) 24:395-402 [Keywords: physiology, reproduction, paternity, sperm competition]

Turunen, S. 1983. Absorption and utilization of essential fatty acids in lepidopterous larvae: Metabolic implications. In Metabolic aspects of lipid nutrition in insects, eds. T. E. Mittler and R. H. Dadd, 57-71. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Turunen, S., Chippendale, G. M. 1981. Lipid transport in the migrating Monarch butterfly, Danaus p. plexippus. Experientia (Basel) 37:266-268 [Keywords: physiology, lipids, migration, diglycerides]

Turunen, S., T., K. 1979. Digestion and absorption of lecithin in larvae of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 62A:933-937

Urquhart, F. A. 1970. Mechanism of cremaster withdrawal and attachment in pendant rhopalocerous pupae (Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist 102:1579-1582

Vane-Wright, R. I. 1986. White monarchs. Antenna 10:117-118

Varma, R. K., Behura, P. B. K. 1966. Nitrogen excretion in the caterpillars of the common "Ak" butterfly, Danaus chrysippus (Linneaus) (Danaidae, Lepidoptera). Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress (Calcutta) 53:35

Vaughan, G. L., Jungreis, A. M. 1977. Insensitivity of lepidopteran tissues to ouabain: physiological mechanisms for protection against cardiac glycosides. Journal of Insect Physiology 23:585-589 [Keywords: foraging, physiology, chemical defense, secondary compounds, cardiac glycosides, ouabain]

Vaughan, G. L., Jungreis, A. M. 1977. Physiological mechanisms for protection of Na+-K+-ATPases from cardiac glycoside inhibition in Lepidoptera. Fed. Bull., Fed. American Soc. Exp. Biol., Baltimore 36:580

Wasserthal, L. T. 1984. Hemolymph flows in the wings of butterflies visualized by vital straining. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 83:45-49

Wells, H., Wells, P. H., Cook, P. 1990. The importance of overwinter aggregations for reproductive success of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). Journal of Theoretical Biology 147:115-132 [Keywords: behavior, physiology, overwintering, reproduction, mating model, density]

Wells, H., Wells, P. H., Rogers, S. H. 1993. Is multiple mating an adaptive feature of monarch butterfly winter aggregation? In Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly , ed. S. B. Malcolm, M. P. Zalucki. pp. 61-68. Science Series. Vol. 38. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County [Keywords: behavior, reproduction, mating, promiscuity, energetics]

Wensler, R. J. 1977. The ultrastructure of the indirect flight muscles of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.) with implications for fuel utilization. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 58:157-167

Wink, M., Schneider, D. 1988. Carrier-mediated uptake of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in larvae of the aposematic and alkaloid-exploiting moth Creatonotos. Naturwissenschaften (Berlin) 75:524-525 [Keywords: chemical defense, physiology, cardiac glycosides, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, sequestration, storage]

Wink, M., von Nickisch-Rosenegh, E., Schneider, D. 1990. Processing of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in three moths, Syntomis mogadorensis, Syntomeida epilais and Creatomotos transiens. Symposia Biologica Hungarica 39:53-61 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, cardenolides, pyrrolizidine alkaloids]

Wyatt, G. R. 1974. Regulation of protein and carbohydrate metabolism in insect fat body. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft (Stuttgart) 67:209-226

Zalucki, M. P. 1981. The effects of age and weather on egg laying in Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Researches on Population Ecology (Kyoto) 23:318-327

Zalucki, M. P. 1982. Temperature and rate of development in Danaus plexippus L. and D. chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 21:241-246 [Keywords: physiology, development time, temperature]

Zalucki, M. P., Brower, L. P., Malcolm, S. B. 1990. Oviposition by Danaus plexippus in relation to cardenolide content of three Asclepias species in the southeastern USA. Ecological Entomology 15:231-240 [Keywords: behavior, reproduction, oviposition, physiology, cardiac glycosides, Asclepias, milkweeds]

Zalucki, M. P., Hughes, J. M., Carter, P. A. 1987. Genetic variation in Danaus plexippus L.: Habitat selection of differences in activity times? Heredity (Oxford) 59:213-221 [Keywords: genetics, habitat selection, activity times, Australia]

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