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Scientific Bibliography : Monarch Anatomy

Morphology of Life Stages
Behera, M. K., Behura, B. K. 1973. Studies on the scales of five species of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Insecta). Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress (Calcutta) 60:538-539
[Keywords: anatomy, scales]

Birch, M. C. 1979. Eversible structures. In Moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 9, Sphingidae-Noctuidae, eds. J. Heath and A. M. Emmet, 9-18. London: Curwen Books.

Boppre, M., Fecher, K. 1977. Structural complexity of scent organs of male Danaid butterflies. Scanning Electron Microscopy (Chicago) 2:630, 639-644

Boppre, M., Petty, R. L., Schneider, D., Meinwald, J. 1978. Behaviourally mediated contacts between scent organs: another prerequisite for pheromone production in Danaus chrysippus males (Lepidoptera). Journal of Comparative Physiology A 126:97-103 [Keywords: behavior, chemical communication, pheromones, hairpencils, PA]

Boppre, M., Vane-Wright, R. I. 1989. Androconial systems in Danainae (Lepidoptera): Functional morphology of Amauris, Danaus, Tirumala and Euploea. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 97:101-133

Burgess, E. 1980. Contributions to the anatomy of the Milkweed butterfly (Danais archippus Fabr.). Anniv. Memoirs Boston Soc. Nat'l. Hist., Boston 3-14, 2 pls.

Byers, J. R., Hinks, C. F. 1973. The surface sculpturing of the integument of lepidopterous larvae and its adaptive significance. Canadian Journal of Zoology 51:1171-1179, 3 pls.

Dethier, V. G. 1975. The Monarch revisited. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 48:129-140

Eanes, W. F. 1978. Morphological variance and enzyme heterozygosity in the monarch butterfly. Nature (London) 276:263-264 [Keywords: genetics, heterozygosity, morphology]

Ehrlich, P. R. 1958. The comparative morphology, phylogeny and higher classificatin of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull., Lawrence, Kans. 39:305-370

Ehrlich, P. R. 1958. The integumental anatomy of the Monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Danaiidae). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull., Lawrence, Kans. 38:1315-1349

Ehrlich, P. R., Davidson, S. E. 1961. The internal anatomy of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Microent., Palo Alto 24:85-133 [Keywords: anatomy, internal]

Ehrlich, P. R., Ehrlich, A. H. 1962. The head musculature of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Microent., Palo Alto 25:1-89

Ehrlich, P. R., Ehrlich, A. H. 1963. The thoraic and basal abdominal musculature of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Microent., Palo Alto 25:91-126

Eltringham, H. 1915. Further observations on the structure of the scent organs of certain male danaine butterflies. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1915:152-1786, pls. 11-20

Frings, H., Frings, M. 1949. The loci of contact chemoreceptors in insects: a review with new evidence. American Midland Naturalist 41:602-658

Hausman, S. A. 1951. The scent producing organ of the Monarch butterfly. American Naturalist 85:389-391 [Keywords: anatomy, chemical communication]

Hepburn, H. R. 1971. Proboscis extension and recoil in lepidoptera. Journal of Insect Physiology 17:637-656

Herman, W. S. 1975. Endocrine regulation of posteclosion enlargement of the male and female reproductive glands in monarch butterflies. General and Comparative Endocrinology 26:534-540

Herman, W. S., Barker, J. F. 1976. Ecdysterone antagonism, mimicry and synergism of juvenile hormone action on the monarch butterfly reproductive tract. Journal of Insect Physiology 22:643-648 [Keywords: physiology, reproduction, ecdysterone, juvenile hormone]

Hirumi, H., Maramorosch, K. 1964. Tissue culture of the Monarch butterfly, Anosia plexippus. Contrib., Boyce Thompson Inst., Menasha, Wis. 22:259-268

Johnson, G. C. D. 1979. The accessory reproductive glands of the male monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus: Their development, fine structure, and biochemistry. Ph.D. thesis, St. Paul: Univ. of Minn.

Jordan, K. 1898. Contributions to the morphology of lepidoptera. 1. The antennae of butterflies. Novitates Zoologicae (London) 5:374-415, 2 pls.

Kellogg, V. L. 1893. The sclerites of the head of Danais archippus. Kans. Univ. Quarterly, Lawrence, Kans. 2:51-57

Kirk, W. D. J. 1983. The tracheation of the wings of adult Lepidoptera. J. Zool. Lond. 199:385-393

Lamborn, W. A. 1919. The relation of the anal tufts to the brands of the hind-wings observed and the scent perceived in a male danaine butterfly. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 1918:clxxii-clxxiv

Leong, K. L. H., Frey, D., Hamaoka, D. 1993. Wing damage in overwintering populations of monarch butterfly at two California sites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 86:728-733 [Keywords: anatomy, overwintering, California, mating, reproduction]

Mathavan, S., Muthukrishman, J. 1980. Use of larval weight and length as indices of gut content weight in some lepidopterous larvae. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 44:317-318

Mehta, D. R. 1933. Comparative morphology of the male genitalia in lepidoptera. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 35:197-266

Myers, J. 1969. Distribution of foodplant chemoreceptors on the female Florida queen butterfly. J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 23:196-198

Myers, J. H. 1968. The structure of the antennae of the Florida Queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus berenice (Cramer). Journal of Morphology 125:315-328

Nordlander, R. H., Edwards, J. S. 1968. Morphological cell death in the post-embryonic development of the insect optic lobes. Nature (London) 218:780-781

Nordlander, R. H., Edwards, J. S. 1968. Morphology of the larval and adult brains of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus L. Journal of Morphology 126:67-94

Nordlander, R. H., Edwards, J. S. 1969. Postembryonic brain development in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus L. I. Cellular events during brain morphogenesis. Wilhelm Roux Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (Berlin) 162:197-217

Nordlander, R. H., Edwards, J. S. 1969. Postembryonic brain development in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus L. II. The optic lobes. Wilhelm Roux Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (Berlin) 163:197-220

Nordlander, R. H., Edwards, J. S. 1970. Postembryonic brain development in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus L. III. Morphogenesis of centres other than the optic lobes. Wilhelm Roux Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (Berlin) 164:247-260

Pliske, T. E., Salpeter, M. M. 1971. The structure and development of the hairpencil glands in males of the Queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus berenice. Journal of Morphology 134:215-242

Rogers, S. H., Wells, H. 1984. The structure and function of the bursa copulatrix of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). Journal of Morphology 180:213-221

Shepard, H. H. 1930. The pleural and sternal sclerites of the lepidopterous thorax. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 23:237-260

Taylor, R. L. 1964. The metallic gold spots on the pupa of the Monarch butterfly. Entomol. News, Philadelphia 75:253-256

Thakare, V. K., Raina, S. K., Pable, U. R. 1975. Histomorphology of the female reproductive system of the butterfly Danais legisipus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Journal of Animal Morphology and Physiology 22:1-8

Urquhart, F. A. 1970. Mechanism of cremaster withdrawal and attachment in pendant rhopalocerous pupae (Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist 102:1579-1582

Urquhart, F. A. 1972. The effect of cauterizing the MNPPM of the pupa of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus p. plexippus) (Danaidae). J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 26:137-140

Urquhart, F. A. 1972. The effect of micro-cauterizing the ALPPM ("gold spot" of authors) of the pupa of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexipus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Canadian Entomologist 104:991-993, 1 pl.

Urquhart, F. A. 1972. Epidermal cells of the PPM ("gold spots") of the pupa of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus p. plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Canadian Entomologist 104:1565-1571

Urquhart, F. A. 1972. Functions of the prismatic pigmented maculae (PPM) of the pupa of Danaus p. plexippus (Lepidoptera, Danaidae). Annales Zoologici Fennici 9:193-198

Urquhart, F. A. 1973. Reduction of abdominal scales of the Monarch butterfly imago as a result of cauterising the Abd PPM of the pupa. Journal of Research On the Lepidoptera 11:241-244

Urquhart, F. A. 1976. Alar pocket of the male Monarch butterfly (Danaus p. plexippus) (Danaidae: Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist 108:777-782 [Keywords: anatomy, alar pocket, scales]

Urquhart, F. A., Dampney, P. 1969. Microcauterization to maxillectomize lepidopterous larvae by fulguration. Canadian Journal of Zoology 47:1416-1417

Urquhart, F. A., Tang, A. P. S. 1971. The effect of cauterizing the PPM ("Gold Spots" of authors) of the pupa of the Monarch butterfly (D. plexippus). Journal of Research On the Lepidoptera 9:157-167

Wasserthal, L. T. 1984. Hemolymph flows in the wings of butterflies visualized by vital straining. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 83:45-49

Waterhouse, D. F. 1953. The occurrence and significance of the peritrophic membrane, with special reference to adult Lepidoptera and Diptera. Australian Journal of Zoology (Melbourne) 1:299-318, 2 pls.

Wensler, R. J. 1977. The ultrastructure of the indirect flight muscles of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.) with implications for fuel utilization. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 58:157-167

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