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Maybe this question has been answered previously, but does air temperature affect pupal development? I raised a cat late last summer and into the autumn which stayed in pupa for 14 days in an area which air temperatures dropped to 60 degrees or lower. I have recently raised several cats which were in pupa for 8 days or less in temperatures of 80 degrees and higher.
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In my experience, the later in the season the longer it can take for the entire cycle to be completed. I don't know if it's temp or daylight. The days are getting shorter, but the temps are also getting cooler, so it may be a combination of both. I have also found that some of the last butterflys to hatch can also be smaller than normal.
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The hotter it is the faster the cycle goes. The cooler, it gets slower. A friend once had a pupa that took 6 weeks to emerge.http://www.mymonarchguide.com/
My Monarch Guide has very good information.http://www.jstor.org/pss/3565556
31 C to 35.5 C temperatures become lethal (87.8 to 95.5 F)
12 C development threshold (53.6 F)
Herndon, VA (USA)
Take care of the small things....
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